As digital libraries make the dissemination of research publications easier, they also enable the propagation of invalid or unreliable knowledge. Examples of relevant problems include: retraction and inadvertent citation and reuse of retracted papers , ; propagation of errors in literature and scientific databases , ; non-reproducible papers; known domain-specific issues such as cell line contamination ; bias in research datasets and publications -; systematic reviews that arrive at different conclusions about the same question at the same time , . The digital environment facilitates broad interdisciplinary reuse beyond the originating scientific community; thus, marking known problems and tracing the impact on dependent and follow-on works is particularly important (but still under-addressed). Further, context-specific information inside a paper may not be immediately reusable when extracted by automated processes, leading to apparent contradictions . Current mitigating approaches use the underlying reasoning for information retrieval , , develop new infrastructures analyzing the reasoning - or certainty  of statements, or use visualization to highlight possible discrepancies , .